Rangkuman Unit 5
Financial and management accounting
Today globalization and diverication force structural changes in organizations throughout the world, making economic processes more complex. These processes are also made more dynamic through product and process innovativation and use of the information highway. As a business process analyst, you are responsible for mapping your business processes to SAP financial accounting system. You will need to understand tehe foundation elements I the order to understand how data flows with SAP financial accounting.
The accounting system with its various sub units is a critical pat of the SAP solution. The integration of the various aspect od accounting with each other and with logistics and human resources applications becomes a management tool for all company departemens. Interface with the logstics chain from procorument ro sales allow the optimization of operational processing with customers, supplyer, of financial institurions.
Financial accounting includes :
· G/L accounting
· Accounts payable and accounts receivable
· Asset accounting
Corporate finance management (CFM) includes :
· Corporate finance management (planning.analysis,decision support,financial transactions,payments, amd risk capabilities in various group environment)
· Treasury management
· Executive information system
· Profit center accounting
· Legal consolidation
Profitability and sales accounting includes :
· Profitability analysis
Product cost controlling includes :
· Product cost planning
· Cost object controlling
Overhead cost controlling includes:
· Cost centers
· Internal orders
· Activity based costing
These components provide the basic for performing operational transaction and meet the requirements of decision-based reporting for each application area. As central integration element in SAP, the general ledger offers a briad range of features for external accounting. With its open integrated data flow and user-friendly interface, the general leader meets the requirement of a modem process.
An a effective accounting system includes more than ledger, and documents. Organizational structural is also an essential component. Structure estabilishes the para meters for corporate, tax and management requirement. Assigning all relevant business transactions to these organizational units by using explicit or implicit accounti assignment updates te ledgers. The SAP system also convevy actual calues for the integrated controlling objects contained structure and future strategies has a bearing on how you use the organization terms in SAP accounting system
· Comporate group
· Company code
· Business area
· Functional area
· Profit center
Company : this represents a legally autonomous entity, composed of one or more company codes.
Company code : this respresents the tax law viel calendar , local currency ,view of company. Fiscal calendar, local currwncy and tax reporting requirements determine teg design of the complete and recomenden.
Business area : this help depict internal structures for external segment reporting.
Fungtional area : this area displays the profit and loss steatment according to cost of sales accounting.
Profit centre : with its flexible design, this controlling term is used to depict internal areas of responsibility. The object include cost centers, assets, materials and thoso that areas of responsibility are more detailed than can be captures by just using the business areas.
Chart of accounts : the F1 component offers a flexible method for setting up a general ledger to meet various goals concerning legal issue.
As an operational cart of accounts : the operational chart of accounts contains the accounts currently used in day to day transaction with the system.
As a local chart of accounts : the local chart of accounts contains the accounts that are necessary to fulfill legal requirements.
As a group chart of account : the group chart of accounts all accounts that apply the corporate group.
Costumer master accout receivable
A costumer master record contains all the information that a company needs for its business relation with a customer. This data controls the posting procedure and subsequent processing, such as payments and dunning. Costumers mater records also provide information on cutomers for the accounting and sale departments. Costumers data records are centrally stored in the system. This means that the data record is always consistent, up to date and free redundancy.
The layout costumer master record also leaves roo for special requirements. The account number od an alternative payer can also be entered in the costumer master record. Debit momes and refunds by bank transferred are determained bt dufferent payer bank data. If dunning notice are not to be sent to be entered in the costumer from whom the receivable is due, a different dunning recipient can be indicated. If an affiliated company is invoiced, this must be reflected in a group consolidation. All sales achived through business transaction witin the group must be ekiminated. To do this, the group uniform compay id must be entered I the master record. The uniform company id is transferred to the document upen posting.
Vendor Master-Accounts Payable
Teh vendor master record contains all the infomation a company needs for its business relationship with vendors. Vendor master record are centrally stored in the system. This ensures that data is always consistent, up-to-date and without duplication. The vendor master record provides the following:
· Over view of all data for given vendor
· Flexible data access
· Baseline data used to control payment transaction and to represnt business process. In addtion, the vendor master record’s flexibke design is well suited needs.
Vendor master recrd are also used to represent divusions of labir that differ from one vendor branch to the next. Accounting and incoming payment functions can be centrally combined for vendors with several branch offices who have autonomous selling authorithy.
Increasing automation makes palnning and monitoring of fixed assets for external and internal accounting purposes aver more important. In addtion to puree accounting and balace sheet preparation, there are extensive requirements for controlling and maintenance monitoring.
Here you can represent various valuation methods in anumber of depreciation areas for commercial balance sheet, tax requirements, conrolling purposes, coporate police, and other free valuations. You can carry out these activities in domestic or in forgein currencies. A variety of country-spesific vslustion plans and depreciation keys are deliverd with the system.
Even in the asset class, you distinguish between assential asset types, sch as assets under contruction, ;ow-value economic units, leased assets and that are to be capitalized normally. For the vertical classification of complex economic units, there are group assets, asssets sper-numbers, as well main assets sub-numbers.
Aline item display provides an overview of the open, cleard and parked items from an account. You determine which information about the individual line items is to be displayed on teh screen. Various sort option (by assigment, document number aor clearing data) allow ypu to interactiviley select, vary and total the required document on teh screen. Search and summarization function are available on the initial screen as well, so it is not necessary to display all items. Line item display function are availble for :
· An account in company code
· An account group in group af company code
Whenever documents are posted to an account, the system automatically updates the account balance. The account balance offers an overview of transaction figures for each period by debits and crdits. Possible differenting criteria include account number, company code, fiscal year, business area and currency. Worklist foe several accounts can also be creasted.
General Ledger posting may be the result of :
· Operational transaction
· Posting transaction
· Transaction originally assigned to the ledger, if the General Legder (FI-GL) system is active
At the same time, interrelationship with Controlling and its components can be taken inti account. The extent and type of the integrated system used determine how entris, account assignments and updates are processed for business transaction.
Subsidiary ledgers are completely and comperhensive integrated with G/L accounting on the following levels :
· Maste Data
· Transaction Data
Intergration of master data comprises the shared chart of accounys and all acount assigment elements of the subsidiary ledgers including cost accounting. This integration is also teh crusial advantage of complete data integration at individual transaction level.
The FI Accounts Receivable compnent is responsible for monitoring and controlling customers accounts with in SAP R/3’s Finacial Accounting component. Accounts analyses, alarm reports, due date lists and a flexible dunning system all make it easier to keep track of open times.
SAP R/3’s FI Accounts Payable component manages accounting data for all vendors. Payment are made so that maximum advanatage is taken of available discount, using either standard written forms or electronic means. The system supports all international methods of payment. Balance aidit trails, accounts balances and journals document transaction in Account Payable.
Travel Management and Expense Reimbursement
SAP R/3 Travel Management gives you a flexible, high-performance tool wih you can :
· Plan trips
· Book Travels services
· Approve trips via SAP Business Workflow
· Record trip data
· Detemine and valuate reimbursement amounts according to statutory and enterprise-specific provisions
· Account for travel expneses according to specified statuory provision
Payment and Transfer to Payroll Accounting
Payments of expenses can be accomplished via Finalcial Accounting, Payroll Accounting, or data medium exchange (DME) with credit instituions. SAP R/3 Travels Managment the triggres teh transfer of trvel expenses accounting result.
FI and CO : Standards Versus Flexbility
The mySAP Financials applicatons compnets Conroling (CO) contains all accounting functions necessary for effective conrolling. If an organizations divides accounting into enternal and external viewpoints, CO represent the internal accounting perspective because it provides information for managers –those who are inside an organization and are charged with controlling its operations. CO includes cot and revenue accounting.
Components of Management Accounting
The mySAP Financials key functional area : Management Accounting is comprised of application components in the Controlling (CO) and Enterprise Controlling (EC) areas. This involves recording oth the cumsumption of productio factors of production factors ang the services provied by an organization.
The Controlling Area forms a framework within which CO processes cot and revenus elements transactions an all CO documents. The assigment of multiple company codes to a controlling area can be uesed to support centralized cost accounting for an entire organization.
Cost and revenue element accounting records and groups the cost incurred during a particular settlement period.
Overhead Cost Controlling
Overhead in planning, monitoring, control and coordination in such areas as research and development, procurement, work scheduling and maintenace is gaining more impotance. The mySAP Financials Overhead Cost Controlling (CO-OM) component helps you plan, allocated, control, and monitor overheadin your organization. You can assign overhead to tehe cost centers where it accurred or to the activities that generated the overhead.